Tuesday, November 15, 2011

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Introductory Ngoni Grammar part 4: The Ngoni Pronouns

  • Tuesday, November 15, 2011
  • Samuel Kadyakale
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  • continuation of Ngoni Grammar. Click here for part 3

    THE PRONOUN IN NGONI LANGUAGE 

    1—NGONI PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

    1. The personal pronoun is used—

    (1) As the subjective prefix of a verb.
    (2) As the objective medial, between the tense form and root of a verb.
    (3) The full form, with or without a demonstrative, may be used after the verb, in apposition to, or instead of, the objective medial, to indicate emphasis.
    (4) As the subjective prefix of an adjective.
    (5) With the possessive particle forming a possessive pronoun.
    (6) With a preposition or adverb.

    2. The following table and examples will illustrate the method of using the personal pronouns. The pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons are here given. The pronoun of the 3rd person must of course vary according to the class to which the noun belongs, and as there are seven classes of nouns, there are consequently a singular and plural pronoun of the 3rd person to each of these classes (the 7th excepted, the singular and plural being the same) :—

    Singular

    1st person
    Full form
    Verbal subject
    Verbal object
    mina
    Ni, ndi, or ngi
    Ni, ndi, or ngi
    2nd person
    wena
    u
    ku
    Plural
    1st person
    thina
    ti
    ti
    2nd person
    Lina or mwena
    Mu or ni
    Mu, li, or ni


    3. Examples of the use of the personal pronouns, 1st and 2nd persons :-

    (1)The pronoun as the subject of the verb.

    Uku hamba, to go; nihamba, I go; uhamba, thou goest. ti hamba, we go; mu hamba, you go.

    NOTE 1. Mu corresponds to the pronoun in Tumbuka and has been adopted from that language.
    Ni hamba, mina, I go, I (emphasis).
    Mu hamba, mwena (or lina), ye go, ye.

    Note 2.—Mwena is derived from the Tumbuka imwe, ye, preserving a a form of mu in the pronoun.
    Lina and nina (Zulu) are synonymous.

    (2) The pronoun as the "pronominal verbal medial," or object.

    Uku tanda, to love ; ni-ku-tanda, I thee love, I love thee.
    Ti-mu-tanda, we you love,we love you.
    Ti-mu-tanda tina, we love you, we (do).
    Ni-tanda wena, I love thee (wena is the object of the verb).

    NOTE 1.—It is to be observed that for the 1st person singular and plural the nominative and objective (subjective and objective) forms are the same. The 2nd singular has ku as the objective form, and the 2nd plural may have mu, li, or ni as the objective but not li as the subjective, forms. The language having reached a transition stage these forms exist.

    The full form in apposition to the verbal medial.

    Ni-mu-tanda mwena, I love you           The full form thus used
    Mu-ti-tanda tina, you love us               emphasizes the pronoun with which it agrees.
    U-ti-tanda tina, thou lowest us See (2) 3rd Ex.

    4. Personal pronouns of the 3rd persons singular and plural are  given in the following table :—

    class
    Singular
    Prefix of Noun
    Subjective
    Verbal Prefix
    Objective
    Verbal Medial
    Full form
    1
    Umu, um, u
    U or wa
    m
    yena
    2
    Umu, um, u
    (Wu) u
    wu
    wona
    3
    Im, in, i
    (yi)i
    lyi
    yona
    4
    itshi
    tshi
    tshi
    tshona
    5
    Ili, i
    li
    li
    lona
    6
    Ulu, u
    lu
    lu
    lona
    7
    uku
    ku
    ku
    kona

    Plural
    1
    Aba, abo, bo
    ba
    ba
    bona
    2
    imi
    (Yi)i
    yi
    yona
    3
    Izim, izin, izi
    zi
    zi
    zona
    4
    Ivi, izi
    Vi, zi
    Vi, zi
    Vona, zona
    5
    ama
    a
    wa
    wona
    6
    Izim, izin, izi
    zi
    zi
    zona


    NOTE 1.—Regarding several of the objective medials see chap. II. 3 (4) Note 1.

    5. Examples of the use of the pronouns of the 3rd person :-

    (1) Ukutanda, to love; umuntu uyatanda wena, the man is loving thee.
    dhla, to eat ; izimbuzi ziyadhla utshani, the goats are eating grass.
    pheka, to cook ; abantu bayapheka ukudhla, the people are cooking the food.

    (2) As the verbal medial objective :—
    Umuntu uya-ku-tanda, the man is loving thee.
    Izimbzi ziya-wu-dhla utshani, the goats are (it) eating the grass (class 2).
    Abantu baya-ku-pheka ukudhla, the people are (it) cooking the food (class 7).

    2—POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.


    1. The following tables show the invariable particle, which, preceded by the possessive particle belonging to the governing noun, forms the possessive pronoun :—

    TABLE OF FIRST AND SECOND PERSONS.

    Person
    Singular
    Plural
    Root of Possessive Pronoun
    Root of Possessive Pronoun
    1st
    -mi
    -ithu
    2nd
    -kho
    -inu


    TABLE OF THIRD PERSONS FOR ALL CLASSES OF NOUNS.

    3rd Person
    Singular

    Plural
    Class
    Prefix
    Root of Possessive
    Prefix of Noun
    Root of Possessive
    1.
    Umu, um,u
    -ke
    Aba, abo, bo
    -bo
    2.
    Umu, um, u
    -wo
    imi
    -yo
    3.
    Im, in, i
    -yo
    Izim, izin, izi
    -zo
    4.
    itshi
    -tsho
    Ivi, izi
    -vo, zo
    5.
    Ili, i
    -lo
    ama
    -wo
    6.
    Ulu, u
    -lo
    Izim, izin, izi
    -zo
    7.
    uku
    -ke




    2. The possessive particle belonging to the noun which denotes the thing possessed is prefixed to the root of the pronoun which corresponds to the noun denoting the possessor. The following examples will serve to illustrate the method of the use of the possessive pronoun :-


    EXAMPLES.

    My hands (the hands of me), izandhla zami.
    His (the man's, class 1,) ox (class 3), inkomo yake.
    Thy voice (class 5), izwi lakho.
    Their (people's, class 1,) trees (class 2), imithi yabo.
    Their (cattle's) food, ukudhla kwazo.
    Our strength, amandhla etu.

    NOTE. —The pronoun for class 4 is frequently used for things indefinitely, and also that for class 7.

    3—REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS.


    1. The particle zi treated as a pronoun in the objective case is inserted before the verb root, and signifies that the subject and object of the verb are the same person or persons ; e.g., ni thanda, I love ; nizithanda, I love myself.

    2. To express myself, thyself, &c., &c., the root -dwa (alone, only) is used with the personal pronoun ; e g., I myself, mina nedwa ; thou thyself wena wedwa, &c. For examples of this form see chapter VII. 5.

    4—DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


    1. There are three demonstrative pronouns, denoting objects near at hand; objects at a distance ; and objects previously referred to in speaking. The place of the demonstrative is usually after the noun, but it may precede the noun in a contracted form, in the case of objects near at hand. The really demonstrative part of it is thus used, and this as may readily be seen is Lo (ro), Le (re), or la

    2. The following table presents at one view the various forms of the demonstrative pronoun :-

    Singular
    Prefix of Noun
    This here
    Those yonder
    That(there, or referred to.
    Umu, um, u
    Loya
    Loyi
    loyani
    lowaya
    lowo
    Umu, um, u
    lowo
    lowuya
    lowo
    Im, in, i
    leyi
    leyiya
    leyo
    itshi
    letshi
    letshiya
    letsho
    Ili, i
    leli
    leliya
    lelo
    Ulu, u
    lolu
    loluya
    lolu
    uku
    loku
    lokuya
    lolu
    Plural
    Prefix of Noun
    These here
    Those yonder
    Those(there, or referred to.
    Aba, abo, bo
    laba
    Labaya
    Labo
    imi
    leyi
    leyiya
    leyo
    Izim, izin, izi
    lezi
    leziya
    lezo
    Ivi, izi
    levi
    leviya
    levo
    ama
    lawo
    lawaya
    lowo
    Izim, izin, izi
    lezi
    leziya
    lezi


    NOTE 1.—L may be used instead of r in any of the above demonstratives.
    NOTE 2.—Those in fourth column "lowo,' &c., is used along with the full form of the personal pronoun, to mark emphasis ; and along with, or instead of, the ordinary form of the relative pronoun q.v.
    NOTE 3.—To denote objects very far away the form in the third column is used and the voice raised according to the degree of distance. It is to be observed that in many instances, in using a form of speech, as much attention must be paid to the correct tone of voice in which it is spoken as to correctness of form, else it may be meaningless to a native. This can only be attained by mixing with the natives and striving to imitate their tone of voice. It may here be added that these "notes" are merely aids to acquiring the language, the important work being the practical part.

    3. There is also a demonstrative " This is the one," " This is it," "Here he is," "Here it is," &c., both for objects near at hand and at a distance. The following table presents these according to each class of noun :-


    Singular.
    Prefix of Noun
    Here he, it is, &c.
    There he, it is, &c.
    umu, um, u
    nangu
    nanguya
    umu, um, u
    nawu
    nawuya
    im, in, i
    nayi
    nayiya
    itshi
    natshi
    natshiya
    ili, i
    nali
    naliya
    ulu, u
    nalu
    naluya
    uku
    naku
    nakuya
    Plural
    Prefix of Noun
    Here they are
    There they are
    aba, abo, bo
    naba
    nabaya
    imi
    nayi
    nayiya
    izim, izin, izi
    nazi
    naziya
    ivi, izi
    navi, nazi
    naviya, naziya
    ama
    nawo
    nawaya
    izim, izin, izi
    nazi
    naziya



    Note 1.—Such forms as nazo, nalo, may be heard for nazi; and namba, nambaya instead of naba, nabaya, for plural of class 1.

    5—RELATIVE PRONOUN.


    1. The Relative Pronoun for all persons, numbers, and classes, is the vowel a. It is used in combination with the initial vowel of the inflex of the noun which is its antecedent or governing noun : hence we have the relative particle appearing as a, e, o, according as the initial vowel of the noun's prefix is a, i, or u, by rule noted (chap. II 3 (3).) But the personal pronoun of the governing noun is also taken to .form the relative clause, that is, where in English we say " the man who sees," in Ngoni the relative clause is literally "the man who he sees." We are therefore able to tabulate the forms of the relative pronoun according to each class of noun, as follows :-


    Singular
    Prefix of Noun
    Relative Pronoun
    Explanation
    umu, um, u
    o
    a(rel. part.) + u(intial vowel of prefix)=o
    umu, um,u
    owu
    a(rel. part.)+u=o+u(wu) pers. pron. =owu.
    im, in, i
    e (eyi)
    a(rel. part.)+i=e+i=e or eyi.
    itshi
    etshi
    a(rel. part.)+i=e+tshi=etshi.
    ili, i
    eli
    a(rel. part.)+i=e+li+eli
    ulu, u
    olu
    a(rel. part.)+u=o+lu=olu
    uku
    oku
    a+u=o+ku+oku
    Plural
    Prefix of Noun
    Relative Pronoun
    Explanation
    aba, abo, bo
    aba
    a+a=a+ba=aba
    imi
    e(eyi)
    a+i=e+i(yi)=eyi
    izim, izin, izi
    ezi
    a+i=e+zi=ezi
    ivi, izi
    evi, ezi
    a+a=a+wa=a(awa).
    izim, izin, izi
    ezi
    a+i=e+zi=ezi.


    2. The Relative Pronoun is used according to the following rules :-

    (1). When the relative is the subject of the verb (e.g., a man who sees,) the relative particle a combines with the initial vowel of the antecedent noun (man), and is followed by the personal pronoun belong to that noun.

    EXAMPLES.

    The man who sees, umuntu obonayo.
    The voice which sounds, ilizwi elidumayo.
    The cow which eats, inkomo eyidhlayo.
    The people who walk, abantu abahambayo.
    The things which remain, izinto eziseleyo.

    NOTE 1.—Yo is appended to the verb for the sake of euphony. Also it serves as the sign of the relative where it is not otherwise expressed ; e.g., lina muhambayo, ye who go. Ko is used instead of yo very frequently.

    (2). In a relative sentence the full forms of the personal pronouns may be treated as nouns. As they are primitive nouns each has a prefix, and it appears when they are thus treated as nouns in a relative sentence. Thus :-



    First
    Second
    Third
    Singular
    u-mina or i
    u-wena
    u-yena
    Plural
    i-thina
    i-lina
    i-bona


    Examples.
    I who see, mina enibonayo, or mina nibonayo. Thou who seest, wena obonayo, or wena ubonayo. He who sees, yena obonayo, or yena wabonayo. We who see, thina etibonayo, or thina aba-, or thina tibonayo.
    They who see, bona ababonayo, or babonayo.

    (3). When the Relative is in the possessive case (e.g., a man whose cattle are many) the rule (2) holds good, and the relative precedes the noun which denotes the thing possessed. That noun loses its initial vowel, and the personal pronoun is attached to the verb or adjective, and the full form of the pronoun may be put after the noun. But the relative is often omitted, and the clause is a direct statement, the exact sense of which is to be gathered from the context.

    EXAMPLE (as above).
    Umuntu ozinkomo ziningi.
    or, Umuntu ozinkomo zake ziningi.
    or, Umuntu zinkomo zake ziningi.

    (4). When the Relative is the object of the verb, the particle a combines with the initial vowel of the noun which is the subject of the verb, and the objective pronoun is inserted before the verb root or the full form of the pronoun follows the verb.

    EXAMPLE.

    The man whom I see, umuntu enimbonayo. or, umuntu yena enibonayo. or, umuntu nibonayo yena.

    (5) In oblique forms, such as , to whom, from whom, with whom, by whom, &c., the foregoing rule (4) obtains, and the preposition appropriate to the expression is preferred to the pronoun, which may appear in a contracted  form, or in the full form.

    The following table illustrates these remarks:-

    Class
    Noun
    “i speak
    of, through, by, &c., whom or which
    to, at, from, on, &c., whom or which
    with, whom, or which

    singular




    1.
    umuntu, man
    enikhuluma
    ngayena or ngaye
    kuyena or kuye
    nayena or naye
    2.
    umuti, tree
    enikhuluma
    ngawona or ngawo
    kuwona or kuwo
    nawona or nawo
    3.
    imbuzi, goat
    -
    ngayona or ngayo
    kuyona or kuyo
    nayona or nayo
    4.
    itshibamu, gun
    -
    ngatshona or ngatsho
    kutshona or kutsho
    natshono or natsho
    5.
    ilizwi, word
    -
    ngalona or ngalo
    kulona or kulo
    nalona or nalo
    6.
    uluti, rod
    -
    ngalona or ngalo
    kulona or kulo
    nalona or nalo
    7.
    ukudhla, food
    -
    ngakhona or ngakho
    kukhona or kukho
    nakhono or nakho

    plural




    1.
    abantu, people
    -
    ngabona or ngabo
    kubona or kubo
    nabona or nabo
    2.
    imithi, trees
    -
    ngayona or ngayo
    kuyona or kuyo
    nayona or nayo
    3.
    izimbuzi, goats
    -
    ngazona or ngazo
    kuzona or kuzo
    nazona or nazo
    4.
    ivibamu, guns
    -
    ngavona, or ngavo
    kuvona or kuvo
    navona or navo
    5.
    amazwi, words

    ngawona or ngawo
    kuwona, or kuwo
    nawona or nawo
    6.
    izinti, rods
    -
    ngazona or ngazo
    kuzona or kuzo
    nazona or nazo



    (4). When a personal noun singular (class 1) or the 3rd personal pronoun singular is the subject of the verb, the relative particle a alone is the subject pronoun in a relative sentence.

    Umuntu ambonayo, the person whom he sees.

    6— NGONI INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

    1. The following interrogatives are used with the personal pronouns according to the classes of nouns. The particle na may be used where in English we use the point of interrogation ; but in many sentences an enquiring tone of voice indicates interrogation and na may be omitted.

    (1). Ni. What? Who? Used in regard to nature, race, or quality.

    EXAMPLES.

    Umuntu muni na? what man? who?
    Ungumuntu muni na? what sort of person art thou?
    Ngiyinto yini na? what sort of thing is it?
    Wathini na? what did he say ?

    (2). Ni. Compounded with nja (manner) it means, how? with regard to manner, state, or degree.

    EXAMPLES.

    Wayenza njani na? how did he work ?
    Unjani namuhla ? how are you to-day?
    Ukufa kwake kunjani? how great is his sickness?

    (3). Nini. When?

    EXAMPLE.

    Wabuya nini? when did he come?

    (4). Phi. Which ?

    EXAMPLES.

    Umuntu muphi? which person?
    Izwi liphi? which voice ?
    Izinkomo ziphi? which cattle ?

    (5). Phi. Where ? Uvela phi na ? where do you come from ?

    (6). Kuphi. Where? Ukuphi uyihlo na? where is your father?

    (7). Ngaki. How many ?

    EXAMPLES.

    Abantu bangaki? how many people?
    Izinkomo zingaki? how many cattle?
    Ivihlangu vingaki? how many shields?

    Note.—with the exception of nini, when? all the foregoing may be used with the substantive verb.

    2. The following English interrogatives are expressed thus :-

    (1). Who? Ubani?

    EXAMPLES.

    Wafika ubani? (or ngubani=it is who) who arrived ?
    Ungubani? who art thou ?

    (2). Whose? By prefixing the proposition ka to (u) bani (who or what individual) according to the rule stated for the possessive case with proper nouns (chap. vi. 4).

    EXAMPLES.

    Umfazi ka bani? whose wife?
    Izinkomo zika bani? whose cattle?

    (3). By whom? The verb substantive is used with (u) bani.

    EXAMPLES.
    Wabulawa ngubani? by whom was he killed?

    (4). To whom? From whom? Against whom? The preposition ku is used with (u) bani according to rule mentioned under " Whose ?"

    EXAMPLES.
    Ukhuluma ku bani? to whom do you speak ?
    Uvela ku bani, from whom do you come ?
    Wayonela ku bani? whom did he sin against ?

    (5). For whom ? The objective form of the verb (q.v.) is used to express " for." -

    (6). With whom? The preposition na is used with bani or ubani

    Examples.

    Uya nabani? with whom do you go?
    Ukhuluma nobani ? with whom do you speak ?

    (7). How large ? .
    (8). How great?
    (9). How much?
    7, 8 and 9 are expressed by ngaka (denoting degree), the preposition na (with) and the interrogative ni (what) to which is prefixed the pronoun of the governing noun.

    EXAMPLES.

    Indhlu ingakanani? how great is the house ?
    Ubude wake ungakanani ? how tall is he ? (lit.,his tallness it is how great ? )

    Click here for part 5 on Ngoni Adjectives and Adverbs.

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